75 years ago, soldiers of Hitler's Wehrmacht were close enough to the Kremlin to see its church domes through their scopes. But the spearheads of a 'Europe united against Bolshevism', who had led the largest invasion in history numbering some 3.5 million men a few months before, would advance no further. Today an anti-tank barrier stands along the highway through the northwest side suburb of Khimki, marking the spot of the closest German approach to the Russian capitol.
Aided by the superb intelligence of deep cover agent Richard Sorge in Japan, the Soviets knew the Imperial Japanese would not attack in the Far East on behalf of their Axis allies. That enabled Stalin and his top commander Georgy Zhukov to transfer "15 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry divisions, 1,700 tanks, and 1,500 aircraft from the Far East to the European front in November 1941" and to turn the tables on a Wehrmacht that for two years had dominated Europe and known only victory.
In just a few hours the Italian people will wake up and go out to vote on what could be a national referendum even greater than the Brexit vote taken back in June. This is because the outcome of the vote, whether Yea or Nay, could very well determine the futures of not only Italy's place in the European Union, but also the solvency of Euro currency and of many Western banks.